Eli Hyman
Isaac Joy
Operation Overlord
  • Stalin, Churchill and FDR met at the Soviet embassy in Tehran, Iran in 1943 to do military planning and talk about Europe. Stalin makes Churchill and Roosevelt keep their promise after they didn’t’ hold it up in 1942 and 1943
  • Dwight Eisenhower put in charge of allied attacked in 1944
  • A total of 156, 000 allied troops and 6,000 automobiles were supposed to reach Normandy. This consisted of US, British, and Canadian troops. There were 18,000 parachutists. There were 11,590 planes available.
  • Overlord is the code name for the battle in Normandy on D-day. It was supposed to be on June 5, but the poor weather prevented that. The tide and moon had to be in a perfect position for the planes and boats. It ended up being on June 6. Landing time was 6:30 AM, known as H-Hour. At this point, the moon was 99% illuminated.
  • The D-Day rehearsal (Exercise Tiger) resulted in the deaths of 749 American soldiers.
  • Charles de Gaulle (de-facto leader of the Free French) almost ruined the allies’ plans to keep the invasion a secret when he leaked Operation Overlord was a real invasion plan.
  • Main US objective was to engage Germany in battle and establish a frontal assault on them. They also wanted to force Italy out of the axis.
  • The landings were made on 5 beaches: British Sword, Juno, Gold, Omaha, and Utah
  • The operation tricked the Germans: They thought that their objective was the Pas de Calais
  • By August, 1944, northern France was liberated and the Nazi rule of Germany was about to fall with the help of the Soviets
  • There were four types of obstacles preventing them from reaching the shore. The most difficult to overcome was the “Belgian Gate”, a 10 * 10, 3 ton, steel lattice. To topple them, they had to simultaneously explode sixteen packs of a plastic explosive named C-2.
  • After the carnage had cleared, 1465 Americans were dead, 3184 were wounded, 1928 were missing, and 26 were captured on D-Day. 15,000 French citizens were also killed
  • At the end of August, the Allies had lost 4,000 tanks, 4,000 planes, 37,000 killed, 154,000 injured, and 19,000 missing

German Reaction
· The Germans built an Atlantic Wall, started in 1942 to defend the west coast of Europe. It consisted of booby- traps with sets of fortresses. One of the main ones, Cherbourg, was taken over and used by the Americans. One of the nastiest parts of the Atlantic Wall was the Rommelspargel, or Rommel’s Asparagus. Long wooden poles were set up in fields to injure gliders and paratroopers
· Famous German general, Erwin Rommel, was in charge of defending the French coast
· The Germans flooded fields to drown paratroopers.
· In the early 1940’s, the Germans didn’t take any threats too seriously, so they only built protection for the major ports. They were completely overwhelmed and unprepared for the allied attack
· The official statistics are unknown, but it is estimated that 4,000 to 9,000 Germans were killed



Photos:
1. Belgian Gate
2. Mulberry Harbor. Mulberry harbors were used for the first time in order to carry the Allied men and vehicles. The harbors were first developed during the Normandy invasion by Hugh Iorys Hughes.
3. Allied Boats. These are allied ships traveling across the English Channel. The balloons they are carrying protect them against German planes
· A total of 130, 000 soldiers, 12,000 vehicles, 2,000 tanks, and 10,000 tons of supplies participated in battle.

4. Path of Attack
5. Allied Boat
6. Landing Craft near Beach
7. Rommel
8. Rommel's Asparagus
9. Teheran Conference
10.
Americans buried in Normandy Cemetary
11. German Atlantic Wall


Bibliography:
1. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Belgian_Gate.jpg__
2. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mulberry_at_portland.JPG__
3. __http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/OnlineLibrary/photos/images/d00001/d02333.jpg__
4. http://www.rnsubmus.co.uk/images/dday/02%20-%20D-Day%20map.gif
5. __http://www.historylink101.com/wwII_b-w/d-day/onboat1/PICT1950.html__
6. __http://www.historylink101.com/wwII_b-w/d-day/beaches2/PICT4205.html__
7. __http://www.davidcross.us/classes/tao/rommel4.jpg__
8. __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/51/Bundesarchiv_Bild_101I-582-2122-31%2C_Frankreich%2C_%22Spargelfelder%22.jpg__
9. __http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Teheran_conference-1943.jpg__
10. __http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/98/WW2_Normandy_American_Cemetery_Rain.JPG__
11. http://www.warhistory1944.co.uk/images/atlantic_wall_1_lg.jpg